How to: Risk assessing and screening for Type 2 diabetes



Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of metabolic conditions in which the body either does not produce enough insulin (insulin deficiency) and/or does not properly use the insulin that is produced (insulin resistance). Insulin is the hormone produced in the pancreas that the human body uses to convert the sugar in your blood (blood glucose) to energy in your active cells. Blood glucose is the primary energy source for the brain, and also critical to cells and tissues in the body to function properly. Diabetes (both Type 1 and Type 2) causes the body to have too much glucose in the bloodstream, and that can damage health in several ways.

Diabetes is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 13 per cent of the United States population, and the worldwide prevalence is estimated at 9.3% in adults, equivalent to 463 million people. Type 2 diabetes accounts for over 92% of patients with diabetes. Below are the recommendations related to screening asymptomatic patients for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Recommendations for Risk Assessment for Type 2 Diabetes

There are multiple questionnaire-based risk assessment tools available for Risk Assessment tools for Type 2 Diabetes. The most popular risk assessment tool used in the United States is developed by American Diabetes Association (Link: Not all risk assessment tools are the same and they differ in performance based on the methodology used, the development race that it is developed on, number and type of risk parameters used, type of clinical validation and calibration conducted etc. Caution should be taken and considerations should be made before considering a single risk assessment tool across the population for Type 2 Diabetes screening.

Recommendations for Screening for Type 2 Diabetes

The United States Preventive Services Task Force provides the below recommendations for risk assessment, screening and interventions for Type 2 Diabetes.

Population Recommendation
Adults aged 40 to 70 years who are overweight or obese The USPSTF recommends screening for abnormal blood glucose as part of cardiovascular risk assessment in adults aged 40 to 70 years who are overweight or obese. Clinicians should offer or refer patients with abnormal blood glucose to intensive behavioural counselling interventions to promote a healthful diet and physical activity.
Adults aged 40 to 70 y who are overweight or obese Screen for abnormal blood glucose. Offer or refer patients with abnormal blood glucose to intensive behavioural counselling interventions to promote a healthful diet and physical activity.
Risk Assessment Risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism include overweight and obesity or a high percentage of abdominal fat, physical inactivity, and smoking. Abnormal glucose metabolism is also frequently associated with other cardiovascular risk factors, such as hyperlipidaemia and hypertension.
Screening Tests Glucose abnormalities can be detected by measuring HbA1C or fasting plasma glucose or with an oral glucose tolerance test. Diagnosis of IFG, IGT, or type 2 diabetes should be confirmed with repeated testing (the same test on a different day is the preferred method of confirmation).
Screening Interval Evidence on the optimal rescreening interval for adults with an initial normal glucose test is limited. Studies suggest that rescreening every 3 y may be a reasonable approach.
Treatment and Interventions Effective behavioural interventions combine counselling on a healthful diet and physical activity and involve multiple contacts over extended periods. There is insufficient evidence that medications have the same benefits as behavioural interventions.
Balance of Benefits and Harms The overall benefit of screening for IFG, IGT, and diabetes and implementing intensive lifestyle interventions is moderate.
Other Relevant USPSTF Recommendations The USPSTF recommends screening and appropriate interventions for modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular events (overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, abnormal lipid levels, high blood pressure, and smoking). These recommendations are available at

For a summary of the evidence systematically reviewed in making this recommendation, the full recommendation statement, and supporting documents, visit Abbreviations: IFG = impaired fasting glucose; IGT = impaired glucose tolerance.

However, currently, there is no non-invasive and reliable method to conduct a risk assessment and early detection of Type 2 Diabetes. Also, the existing solutions offer the diagnosis of one disease per device only, necessitating multiple tests. Due to this, the user is not opting for pre-diagnostic tests resulting in delayed care. Also, non-compliance with regular monitoring of chronic diseases often leads to patients reaching hospitals late with increased disease severity. Our solution IHRA encourages users to undergo regular health check-ups. Our solution is the first of its kind, and there is no direct competitor to the technology. Our technology gives the risk assessment and early detection of Type 2 Diabetes, unlike traditional blood testing using fingerpick or venepuncture, which offers the state of the diseases. If you are interested to learn more about our solution, contact us today!

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